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10 Bizarre Failed Energy Sources via ListVerse

THEO DRIJVER 

 

Energy  winds up the world and makes money move. New concepts, renewable projects, and heavy investments are promising a bright future for the world’s electrical and transport needs.

But not everything works as promised or hoped. Let’s look at some of the not-so-successful ideas that we might make.

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10Coal Gas Vehicles

Photo credit:  theoldmotor.com

With most gas and oil supplies diverted to military use during  World War I , an alternative was required to power our beloved autos. Using coal gas technology from the 1800s, fuel was produced by heating coal in enclosed, oxygen-deprived ovens and then filtering before distribution.

The problem came in its storage, with many improvised and visually unnerving “gas bags” strapped to the tops of cars. These proved to be obvious fire hazards (given that so many people smoked at the time), restricted speed, and made bridges a bit tricky. So next time we’re held up by a bus, at least it doesn’t have a bomb strapped to the roof.[1]

9Square Sails

Wind was one of the earliest forms of renewable energy, with small boats powered by sails as early as 3500 BC. Used by the Romans, the Chinese, and famously by the Vikings on their longships, square sails were super inefficient if the wind was not directly behind them—which was highlighted by the large crews required on ocean-going vessels.[2]

Inspired by the Arab Dhow style, more triangular-shaped sails were adopted around the world to create smaller, simpler, and more maneuverable boats. These are now known as the fore-and-aft sails.

Without these developments, inland settlements and coastal trading may have taken much longer to progress.

8Tesla Tower

Photo via Wikimedia

In 1901, Nikola Tesla built a 56-meter-high (185 ft) tower at his lab in Long Island. With a huge copper transmitter on top, the Wardenclyffe Tower (aka “Tesla Tower”) aimed to transmit wireless electricity signals to the world.[3]

Initial tests were rumored to be positive, using the Earth itself to conduct electricity and power appliances nearby. However, Tesla lost his funding when rival scientist Guglielmo Marconi completed the world’s first wireless telegraph signal soon afterward.

Conspiracy theories remain over why Tesla’s grand plans were never continued. After all, free energy would have been bad for the oil business.

7Sugar

Photo credit: Scientific American

During the Great Depression, fuel was so expensive that US farmers started producing their own using alcohol. By extracting sugar from corn, they were able to produce the ethanol-diesel blend Agrol.

The development of biofuel blends like this continues to this day, but pure ethanol fuels can be brewed at home from sugar. Unfortunately, this has never caught on due to the equipment, time, and licenses required to do so. In addition, the cost of raw sugar is high and cars that run on pure ethanol are still illegal in the US.[4]

6Tornadoes

Photo credit: vortexengine.ca

Sounding suspiciously like something from a sci-fi film, the atmospheric vortex engine (AVE) aims to replicate a tornado-like vortex to produce mechanical energy. By heating the air from below in a circular motion, the heat carried up by powerful convection is collected by generators.[5]

These ambitious plans by engineer Louis Michaud have resulted in several prototypes of the AVE since the 1970s. But so far, they have been limited to small-scale tests with energy not yet extracted. Even once it’s refined, the elaborate engine may succumb to the first law of thermodynamics. As Mother Nature proves, it takes a lot of power to make a tornado.

5Diapers

Something smells off about this one in many ways, but it’s true. In 2007, engineering firm AMEC made plans to convert used diapers to energy in Quebec. This poo-to-power factory ran on the principles that plastic fibers and feces would break down well in pyrolysis (heating without oxygen).[6]

Despite the abundant supply of raw material, this venture didn’t take off. Perhaps they were tired of the constant jokes or embarrassed about their grand plans, but the ambitious project no longer features in Canadian energy policy.

4Air

Photo credit: citylab.com

In the late 2000s, a small French company and Indian giant Tata Motors embarked together on a mission to create cars powered by compressed air. Using the same piston mechanisms of a normal car, this new car would have required air at 4,350 psi in its tanks—a slight oversight as this pressure is not available from standard pumps.[7]

Although the car was estimated to reach a top speed of 109 kilometers per hour (68 mph), it needed electricity to compress the air in the first place. This is an issue in India, its main market, as the national grid relies heavily on some of world’s dirtiest coal.

3Nuclear Planes

Photo credit: aviation-history.com

Straightaway, this sounds terrifying—and it was. From the Cold War until the 1960s, the Soviet Union developed several prototypes for nuclear-powered planes. The general principle was that incoming air would be heated by the reactor core before passing through a pressurized chamber to generate thrust.[8]

The main concern was how to shield the crew from the radiation emitted only a few meters away from them. Then there was the issue of fitting a rather large and heavy reactor into the back of a plane. The final straw was probably the risk of nuclear fallout from any potential crashes.

2Propeller Car

Photo credit: lanemotormuseum.org

Discovered in a barn in the French countryside in 2000, the Helicon is a bizarre propeller-powered car which is thought to have been originally built in 1932. Despite traditional petrol vehicles being well-established at the time, some mad inventor thought that it would be a good idea to stick some blades on the front and steer with the back wheels.[9]

As well as being difficult to handle, propeller propulsion made the vehicle rather slow and hills required a good run-up. It’s safe to say that we wouldn’t risk jaywalking if these had caught on.

1Peanuts

At the start of the 20th century, Henry Ford claimed that biofuels would power the future—even running his early Model Ts on ethanol—while diesel engines at the 1900 World’s Fair in Paris used peanut oil.

Although this didn’t catch on due to oil exploration, nuts have recently been tried again. In 2012, the Jordanian Rashadia cement plant used 24 million tons of pistachio shells as fuel to offset tight supplies of oil and gas in the country.[10]

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From my fav Newsletter – Brainpickings.org

This is the weekly email digest of brainpickings.org by Maria Popova. If you missed last week’s edition — Camus on the courage to create dangerously, how Carl Sagan inspired Maya Angelou, Erich Fromm on the life-expanding art of spontaneity — you can catch up right here. And if you’re enjoying this newsletter, please consider supporting my labor of love with a donation – each month, I spend hundreds of hours and tremendous resources on it, and every little bit of support helps enormously. If you already donate: THANK YOU.

Two Hundred Years of Blue

With Carl Sagan’s poetic Pale Blue Dot on my mind lately, I have found myself dwelling on the color blue and the way our planet’s elemental hue, the most symphonic of the colors, recurs throughout our literature as something larger than a mere chromatic phenomenon — a symbol, a state of being, a foothold to the most lyrical and transcendent heights of the imagination.

Gathered here is a posy of blue from some of my favorite encounters with this more-than-color in the literature of the past two centuries.

JOHANN WOLFGANG VON GOETHE (1810)

In his sixty-first year, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe(August 28, 1749–March 22, 1832), by then Europe’s reigning intellect, published Theory of Colors (public library | public domain) — his effort to unearth the psychological link between color and emotion nearly a century before the dawn of psychology as a formal field of study, penned just before his compatriot Abraham Gottlob Werner released his seminal scientific nomenclature of color, which Darwin would later take on The Beagle.

“We love to contemplate blue,” Goethe wrote, “not because it advances to us, but because it draws us after it.” The treatise, composed as a refutation of Newton, turned out to have no scientific validity. But its conceptual aspects fascinated and inspired generations of philosophers and scientists ranging from Arthur Schopenhauer to Kurt Gödel.

Color chart by Patrick Syme for Werner’s Nomenclature of Colours: Adapted to Zoology, Botany, Chemistry, Mineralogy, Anatomy, and the Arts.

Goethe writes in the section allotted to blue:

As yellow is always accompanied with light, so it may be said that blue still brings a principle of darkness with it.

This color has a peculiar and almost indescribable effect on the eye. As a hue it is powerful — but it is on the negative side, and in its highest purity is, as it were, a stimulating negation. Its appearance, then, is a kind of contradiction between excitement and repose.

As the upper sky and distant mountains appear blue, so a blue surface seems to retire from us.

But as we readily follow an agreeable object that flies from us, so we love to contemplate blue — not because it advances to us, but because it draws us after it.

Blue gives us an impression of cold, and thus, again, reminds us of shade… Rooms which are hung with pure blue, appear in some degree larger, but at the same time empty and cold.

The appearance of objects seen through a blue glass is gloomy and melancholy.

HENRY DAVID THOREAU (1843)

“Where is my cyanometer,” Henry David Thoreau (July 12, 1817–May 6, 1862) exclaimed in his splendid journal on a blue-skied spring day, referring to the curious deviceinvented by the Swiss scientist Horace-Bénédict de Saussure a century earlier to measure the blueness of the sky, which the polymathic naturalist Alexander von Humboldt enthusiastically embraced. “We love to see any part of the earth tinged with blue, cerulean, the color of the sky, the celestial color,” Thoreau wrote in another spring entry. “The blue of my eye sympathizes with this blue in the snow,” he recorded in a winter one. “Blue is light seen through a veil,” he wrote on the precipice of the two seasons.

Horace-Bénédict de Saussure’s cyanometer, circa 1760.